- Permanent helm:
To be used only if a constant influence, like cross wind or beam sea is experienced. If there is a very strong beam wind from starboard side then a permanent 5 degrees starboard helm may be set.
This setting determines the rudder to be given for each degree of course drifted. Eg. 2 degrees for every 1 degree off course.
- Counter rudder:
Determines the amount of counter rudder to be given once v/l has started swinging towards correct course to stop swing. Both rudder & counter rudder to be set after considering condition of v/l (ballast, loaded, etc.). Eg. Laden condition full ahead, not advisable to go over 10 degrees rudder.