Navigational Oral (FUNCTION – 01)

Oral Questions of Navigation (FUNCTION -1)

The following questions came from candidates right after they had finished their oral exam.

1.Your vessel is drifting, another outbound vessel is on collision course,what is your action?
2. what is Heeling error and its correction.
3.Quote Rule 19(d) in detail.
4. Explain entire procedure of Weather routing.
5.what is difference between climatological and weather routing?
6.Explain TRS in detail with its warning signal and discus why there is NO TRS at equator ?
7. why  TRS  move westerly near equator ?
8.Draw lights for 50m long ship pushing 150m long vessel not ragidly connected ?
9.what are the details in wind rose and information you get from wind rose ?


How to go about with weather routeing? How you will do thw Wx rt. if the ship is sailing in a new area and there are no sister vessels and no data available with company and the ship has no sip performance curve?
11.You are on tanker in open sea and the master has asked to stop engines and then he gives you watch and says just keep drifting , no orders for next port? what will you do on watch
12. Details of routeing chart.
13.Be well prepared for if the last surveyor has put any comment as he checks and definately makes a point to check that you have covered that.
14.Define and explain COLREG  annex 1 ,  vertical
15.Your master sick, vessel transiting from England to Canada in the month of april, assist master in making a passage plan.
16.Narrow channel restricted visibility,  overtaking possible,  What are sound signals ?
17. Cross questions on great circle & composite GC sailing.
18.  Questions on international ice patrol & ice limits
19.What is wind rose explain in detail ?
20.Your vessel is at open sea and main engine fail , No master , take action ?
21.ROR situation relating it with function 3 finally .
22.Can u overtake in Narrow channel ?
23.what is aclinic line. Magnetic equator, an imaginary line near the Equator, where a compass needle balances horizontally, the attraction of the north and south magnetic poles being equal.this must be correct answer of aclinic line.
24.Your vessel ran aground on a muddy ground, later @ high tide refloated & berthed, Master first time in command seeking your advice. what will you advice him as a mate?( doesn’t want to listen about actions after grounding, like checking soundings, and tank inspections) he asked what will u do before discharging cargo?
25.lights of a towing vessel ?( only one question from ROR)
26.you are in open sea and suddenly visibility detoriates, master unavailable, what is your action as chief officer?
27.positioning n specifications of NUC lights
28.In RV engine failed, master still unavailable, what is action as chief officer ?
29.what are specifications of RAM lights ?
30.How do you determine whether it is a close quarter situation or not , surveyor asked to quote rule 7 ?
31.what is RV  situation and asked to explain ROR regarding ROR ?
32.Determination of RHSC  in northern hemisphere?
33.Avoiding action for TRS ?
34.What is ARPA  requirements for ships ?
35.what is WIG craft (definition)?
36.Lights by a WIG craft when underway ?
37.Lights by a pushing vessel (length 50 mtrs.) and vessel being pushed 150 mtrs ?
38.Draw wind rose and explain ?
39.What is Isallobar?
40.How to do weather routeing onboard?
41.Identify the vessel Range 6′, What action will you take?




42.Spacing of Masthead lights & sidelights.
43.Narrow Channel situation.
44.What is weather routing and how you do it ?
45.Types of prognosis reports ?            
46.what are correction and why correction applied for polarize , Surveyor asked for detail description?
47.Names of ocean current in North Atlantic with detail description ?
48.Master sick planning to go from UK to Canada, What all you will do before reporting him that Vessel is ready for sail ?             
49.what is difference between Fishing trawler light when underway  and when making way ?
50.what is TRS curves explain  and why not formation in Arabian sea ?
51.you  are in UK  subcontinent and bound for some port in east USA coast your  master is  sick, After receiving the order what all info you will pass on to master including the passage plan.
1.What is GMT & GAT?
2.Why GAT is called apparent?
3.How to make gyro north seeking?
4.Situation- 1 v/l port side 7 mile, What is your action?
5.RAM port side, what is your action?
6.Define angle of in draft, geostrophic wind and crossquestions?
7.    LRIT functioning & requirement?
8.    what is transverse thrust?
9.    what is precession of equinox?
10.How you will suspect a trs/ action in detail?
11.In RV which vessel is to give way in crossing situation?
12.what is SHA/ RA/ GAT/ LAT?
13.  Define BNWAS?
14.what is buoys ballots law?
15.RV vessel on ur port bow,CPA zero , action  as per which rule?


Later on he placed shallow patch on stbd beamn one right astern with CPA 0.8 cable,please ask TCPA time and take action accordingly
17.when you will deviate from rules in ror and as per which rule?
18.what are special circumstances as per rule 2
19.what is Gradient force.
20.what is Cyclostropic force.
21.vessel on your port quarter, risk of collision exist. you are giveway or standon v/l ? Action vessel on port bow action??
22vessel on port bow and another on port quarter, action?
23.Suddenly atmospheric  pressure dropped by 5mb/action in detail
24.Special circumstance mentioned in rule 2,example?
25. In RV which vessel is give way(quote 18-d)
26.RV vessel on your port bow, CPA zero, action n as per which rule,later on he placed one more vessel on stbd bow n one right astern wid cpa 0.8 cable, Please ask time n take action accordingly
27.In TSS NUC vl crossing port to stbd ,who is stand on and who is give way?
28.30.IN R.V target vessel on stbd qtr, intend to pass from stern, CPA 0.5 nm, is risk of collision exit, who is stand on and give way and as per which rule?
29.Why winds in eye wall blow in a circular path?
30.What are Benchmark symbol?
31.Own vessel stand on,action
32.Port bow ram v/l action
33.What are Synoptic Charts & Prognosis Charts.
34.Does SHA of a star decreases or increases then Why?
35.What is LAT,LMT what is the relations?
36.If you have one bearing say 90 and declinations given can you calculate LATITUDE and IF Possible then HOW?
37.How to trace the path in gyro?
38.Wat is W/0 point ?
39.Wat is ROT How to plot it if radius is given. How to draw the ARC?
40.How to calculate STD Port tide calculations
41.What is the difference  between ATT VOL 1 and others volume 
42.RV own vessel narrow one vessel want to overtake you 0.5 CPA(His Famous Ques)
43.Daily change of SHA of sun given in almanac ?
44.LRIT  working & LRIT data centre in india ?
45.In R/V who is give way vessel & which rule says about it?
46.Same situation of R/V where we have one V/L on stbd qrtr. & one on port beam?
47.What is Damping in azimuth?
48.What are the various forces acting during Damping?
49.What are Centrifugal and centripetal forces with relation to earth’s rotation?
50.What is difference HP and LP areas?
51.what all information will you include in the passage plan document ?
52.what is ballistic deflection & schuler tuning
53.Own vessel P/d , target vessel CBD on port bow,Tell me about action ?
54.Own vessel P/D, target vessel RAM on port bow, action
55.what is heavy weather precautions ?
56.what is significance of smelling the ground ?
57. Define c rod, e rod, k rod heeling error ?
58.what is meaning of inertial navigation systems ?
59.RV situation app shanghai pilot station a vessel frm stbd quarter, action as per rule ? dont alter increase speed he considers it as a last method).
60.Draw lights of aground Fishing vessel,Sailing vessel, NUC, RAM ?
61.Tide calculations for secondary port.
62.Horizontal sextant angle 90 degrees, draw position circle.
63.Horizontal sextant angle 180 degrees, draw position circle.

Functioning of DGPS ?


1.How  gyro works  above 70?
2.how  magnetic  compass  woks in high lat?
3.what do if both not working properly in high lat?
4.why no TRS in south atlantic?
5.Tidel and frontal depression? In atmospheric pressure which creates a depression ,the atmospheric moisture forms clouds, which releases massive amount of heat causing formation of thunderstorms.
6.Crossing situation, give way v/l on port bow with distance 3 miles, you stand on action?  determine risk of collision and take action, tell him the full procedure how you determine risk of collision exists or not.
7.Same situation in RV ? determine risk of collision and reduce speed ,take all way off ?
8.Same situation radar not working? reduce speed, stop ship and wait for the v/l to pass ?
9.Sailing vessel aground light ,as per which rule, positioning of light?
10.Magnetic latitiude, lot of cross question on it, including dip ,geo latitude , he asked me draw?
11.why star rises 4 minutes early each day, lot of cross question?
12.why position  line is perpendicular to azimuth.? (explained with diagram, asked  to define of every term i was using)
13.what is harmonic constant in detail ?
14.Situation no risk of collision, then restricted visibility and radar FAILURE?
15.Position line and position circle?
16.what are Principle of LRIT?
17.ROR  situation – in RV , vessel crossing from port to stbd
18. What is Tide and Tidal stream?
19.There is a vessel of 3 miles on the two point of ur vessel? Action?
20.If thick rain started and visibility reduced,Action?
21.Why ETA used? In which it is applied?
22.Why TRS forms? It generally forms over a warm seas,the moisture and warm air rises causing drop ?
23.Magnetic  Compass Error correction?
24.what is significance of passage planning ?
25.what are Synoptic Chart?
26.you are approaching to Gibraltar from atlantic, Your vessel drifting towards land ,your action?
27.Sailing vessel aground , which all lights?
28.Fog signal listened in RV, action?
29.Rule 19 – No radar, fog signal heard fwd of beam. dense fog, what action?
30. What is ocean current? What are causes of ocean currents?
31.What is orthomorphic projection?
32.What is the correction, how can it be corrected ?.
33.what is Magnetic compass correction?
34.what are chart projections?
35.ETA components strength requirements (check latest amendments)?
36.Principles of bridge team management?
37.Different ways to find out deviation in higher latitudes?
38.What is directional gyro?
39.what is inertial gyro?
40.what is ship handling, current towards berth, direction perpendicular to berth, berth the vessel?
41.lights for sailing vessel with wind and without wind?
42.you are in 50N lat , your magnetic  compass is erratic ,choppy sea, wind force 6,gyro not working ,how will u steer a course?


1.what is intercept or long by chron , which is accurate for the star sight ?
2.Quote rule 13 and rule 18
3.What is azimuth kulz gyro ?
4.Situations – fog horn from stbd. quarter , risk of collision exist – radar not operational – take action .
5.In RV you  hear a fog signal fwd of beam, intensity increasing, what action ,both for port and stbd side.
6.State rule no. 13a, 18d & 17a.19,19d, 38e
7.CBD right ahead same way, action? which action is preferred for overtaking and why?
8.VLCC right ahead target at 1 mile ACTION ? he wants to hear about role of pivot point, how vessel will respond accordingly?
9.Situation is your PD  vessel, CBD is overtaking and you have alteration to stbd.?
10.Annex 1 he asked vertical separation of masthead distance and regarding lights.
11.Situation NUC , see NUC vessel from her stern action.
12.own vessel over taken by CBD , action, who is stand on & give way, why rule 18 not apply ?
13.You are on a  VLCC doing 15 kts head on situation action 1 nm ?
14.2 red in a vertical line and 1 white light seen right ahead what is your action?
15.what meteorological effects when gulf stream meets to labrador current ?
16.RV situation (2-3 rv situation ,capt Sinha likes to alter co. Than reducing speed , rule no. 19D, 19E must be clearly understood).
17.Gyro in detail, Gyro errors (damping, co & spd, inter-cardinal ) how to correct these errors?
18.Information regarding ice, where will you find it ? , how will you avoid it.
19.lateral , cardinal, isolated, safe water bouy top marks , night signal.
20.He will give you vessel course and cardinal bouys right ahead, action ?
21.what is IALA bouyage system, Regions A and B??
22.Where will you find safe water marks??Entering Mumbai port where can you find these marks?
23.Vertical Separation of lights, chromaticity of lights?
24.Causes of Gyro Failure and Action in case of gyro failure( check power and troubleshooting as per manual)
25.Passage 4 elements? What is difference between execution and monitoring ?
26.Methods of taking star sight? Which is the best method?
27.How to take star sight? how to use star finder?
28.Enumerate star calculation? How will you ascertain which stars are best for sight?
29.What are different twilights and which twilight will you consider best for the stars selected and why?
30.Limitations of ECDIS? Why there is training required for ECDIS?
31.what is TRS, Dangerous semicircle, Dangerous Quadrant? Action in NH?
32.What is veering and backing of wind?
33.What precautions are required when navigating in north atlantic ocean? Ocean currents in north atlantic ?
34.What is ice patrol ? Which solas requirement talk about it ?
35.What is gyro sphere ? how current is passed in a gyroscope?
36.TRS  synoptic explanation, gyro error, schuler tunning?
37.what are the metrological change when labradore & Gulf streem meets?
38.what does solas chapter 5 speak about weather reporting regulation  number ?
39.Why northern hemisphere currents are clockwise.?
40.what is DGPS and its significance  ?


1.NUC, pilot vessel and Fishing vessel cards ?
2.Pilot vessel at anchor in RV and sound signal?
3.Card South cardinal mark and meaning?
4.Weather during TRS ?
5.Factors affecting vessel while berthing ?
6.What particulars you will send to weather routine services ?
7.Definition of bubble sextant,  a sextant used especially in aerial navigation in
8.Principle of Directional gyro?
9.A wind rose?
10.One Situation broad daylight observing by binocs, see a vsl on port bow dist 3 miles, action?.
11.Sailing vessel aground lights?
12.South cardinal buoy identification at night ?
13.What is compasses compared ?

About the author

Manish Mayank

Graduated from M.E.R.I. (Mumbai). A cool, calm, composed and the brain behind the development of the database. The strong will to contribute in maritime education and to present it in completely different and innovative way is his source of inspiration.

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From Marine Enclyopedia to MARINE GYAAN ACADEMY in Lucknow - Preparing YOUTH to become SEAFARERS ( for IMU-CET and various courses) From Marine Enclyopedia to MARINE GYAAN ACADEMY in Lucknow - Preparing YOUTH to become SEAFARERS ( for IMU-CET and various courses) From Marine Enclyopedia to MARINE GYAAN ACADEMY in Lucknow - Preparing YOUTH to become SEAFARERS ( for IMU-CET and various courses) From Marine Enclyopedia to MARINE GYAAN ACADEMY in Lucknow - Preparing YOUTH to become SEAFARERS ( for IMU-CET and various courses)