Miscelleneous

Navigation Oral (FUN –1)

Oral Questions of Navigation (FUN -1)

S.No.
Function -1
1What is amplitude?
2What is isogonic chart?
3What is BNWAS, ECDIS requirements & performance standards?
4What are the maintenance of Magnetic compass?
5What are neap tides?
6What are spring tides?
7Why are we required to know about them during our passage planning?
8What are cardinal marks & their characteristics?
9What is INSPIRE & where is It’s headquarter? Indian Ship Position & Information Reporting System
10What are the meteorological equipments on bridge?
11What is passage planning?
12Sailing in navarea 3 to 4 suddenly voyage order changes to NAV Area 5. 
13What action will you take after sending false alert on HF?
14What is the procedure to log distress alert?
15What are the corrections of chart catalogue & how to do it & which section of NTM will u find it? 
16Define tactical diameter & transfer?
17How many navareas? How will you select stations on navtex? How will you get navigational warnings outside navareas when you have lost all satellite antennas?
18Which ALRS volume contains the details of racons? 
19How to correct ASD in detail?
20What are the precautions while using GPS Fix at sea not in coastal waters?
21How will you check performance
22What is the proper meaning of word impede?
23What is annex 4 distress signal in detail?
24What is your action on hearing fog signal?
25Gyro fails action?
26What is range of NUC light? 3 miles
27MOB on port side, action?
28Describe all the 4 annexes.
29What is the diameter of ball? 
30What are the safe water marks, lateral marks & isolated danger marks?
31What is the significance of each type of buoy?
32What is barometric tendency & its significance?
33How we will know ASD is upto date or not?
34What is the purpose of INTERCO?
35What is answering pennant?
36Make a wind rose diagram
37How will you determine iceberg in your locality during day & night?
38What are routing chart details?
39What changes you will make in navtex?
40what precaution regarding UKC to be kept in mind while planning passage .?
41what is static and dynamic draft?
42 what was your company’s UKC policy?
43what is steering tests prior departure
44what do you mean by gyro error LOW or HIGH
45one simple numerical about deviation,variation and compass error
46Definition of crossing situations?
47WHAT IS OCCULTING,FLASHING AND ISOPHASE LIGHT?WHAT IS VERY QUICK?
48WHAT ALL PUBLICATIONS DO YOU CARRY ON BOARD AND IN HOW MANY YEARS NEW EDITION FOR EACH IS PRINTED?
49what is safetyNET
50pdv( POWER DRIVEN VESSEL) underway lights
51how will you determine if risk of collision exits, without using radar
52what is minimum CPA required  to avoid close quater situation
53circumstances for calling master
54O/T situation, give way vl not taking action?
55CBD light and shapes underway, RAM defnitions.  brief TSS
56what is lateral marks, isolated danger marks? Regions
57what is Bridge control tests prior departure.
58how to do steering tests?
59how to find compass,gyro errors
60when approching pilot station within ITZ
61trawler,fishing vl,pilot vessel lights and shapes
62what is RAdio medical advise  and message to prepare?
63 From where we get the list of medicine required to carry onboard?
64Fire in galley you are  incharge,what is your  actions?
65what is  Relative bearing?
66define a vessel NUC, RAM, CBD & their lights.
67define safe speed
68 quote rule 5,6,19 & situations on the same rules 
69what is Region A & B  as per IALA buoyage
70what is cardinal marks, isolated danger marks, fairway buoy.
71where to keep red buoy when sailing out from bombay.
72how to correct charts which is not corrected for last 3 years
73what are errors of magnetic  compass
74what do you understand by gyro error 1 degree high.
75what is squat and its effect on ships
76what is Notices to mariners and  ALRS.
77prepare muster list for abandon ship (to assign duties)
78when to call master.
79when Radar not working, how to keep a proper lookout.
80emergency – engine breakdown , what is your actions 
81what are factors affecting UKC
82what is CPA &  Is  0.2 nm a safe CPA.
83own vsl CBD, narrow channel, NUC vessel is  right ahead, what is your action.
84what is responsibility of CBD as per rule 18.
85when you lowering boat with three person and you are incharge.
86action when engine failure while navigation 25 nm away from land.
87muster list contents , draw roughy and show 
88define celestrial sphere, amplitude, azimuth , sextant error.
89light show by NUC  vessel while underway,making way and at anchor.
90what is  medical reporting produre and where station is located
91compass error calculate when gyro  course 143 deg, compass course 148deg, gyro  error 2 deg high,
92variation  2 deg west ( annually 2 min increasing to west from 1982) gyro  bearing 123, find deviation ,stb compass bearing.
93IN ROR only situation overtaking. R.v overtaking..
94 you  are  taking delivery of new ship how will you implement garbage management plan on board .
95As a 2nd officer what will you  take over in medicine part .
96vessel towing 3 vessels along side what lights it will show.
97what do you mean by ordinary practice of seamen in rule no. 2
98you r taking delivery of new ship how will u implement garbage management plan on board .
99As a 2nd officer wat will u take over in medicine part .
100vessel towing 3 vessels along side wat lights it will show.
101what do you mean by ordinary practice of seamen in rule no. 2
102action in RV one vessel fwd of beam port side and another is taking over stbd side action.
103quote rule no.5, and meaning of all available  mean & chart symbol for works different types of work.
104headon sitiation action ,radar plotting,all cardinal marks n falshing duration.u r overtaking in tss suddenly that vl altered co towards u action
105action in RV one vessel fwd of beam port side and another is taking over stbd side action.
106code rule no.5,meaning of all avai means.chart simble for wks diff types of wk.
107New danger mark,special mark,isolated danger.preffered channel buoys of region a and b 9.
108 IAMSAR manuals and purpose of vol3  and whart are raster and vector charts
109 what is data available in dynamic data of AIS
110when to call master and what actions to be taken if its RV 
111how to determine visibility is detoriating in night.
112action to be taken if person falls overboard.
113what is advance,tactical dia and tranfer what are the imo requirements for that?
114wht is ‘c’ correction in sights and  how will you take a sight
115action to be taken whn you see a white  light.
116what will you do when you find the diffrence between your actual position by your GPS and sight has an error of 50Nm
117how will you determine the waypoints and  wheelover points while altering course on a chart.
118what is prefered channel to stbd (draw) in region A and  where will you place the bouy
119contents of roeuting guide mand ocean passages of the world
120few cards also and regrding NUC and vessel AGROUND
121How to file T and P
122You have a chart corrected till 2010 jan, procedure to check if its corrected up to date, if not , how will you correct. Reason for your answer.
123course 180 sighted south cardinal bouy right ahead,action. Light of south cardinal buoy
124How often is the survey of medical chest on board carried out?
125How many GPS you had on board?
126 Difference between GPS andDGPS and Errors of GPS.
127When do you do stearing gear test. What all is checked. Required capability of stearing gear
128what is iamsar manuals and purpose of vol3 
129whart are raster and vector charts. ECS and Ecdis difference.
130how many sight you can take in the morning,
131 whats the limit for ex- meridian sight ,
132 when is difficult to take merpass. Sights and  auto pilot testing interval
133Quote Rule 9, 13, 15..
134what is Gyro error and  hw will you take in normal forecast & overcast..
135what is muster list preparation..
136how to approach TRS..
137what is Navtex settings.
138what is EGC messages.
139difference between clearing mark & clearing bearing..
140what is great circle sailing.
141Quote Rule 9, 13, 15..
142what is Gyro error and  how will you  take in normal forecast & overcast..
143how muster list preparation..
144how to approach TRS..
145what is  Navtex settings..
146what is EGC messages..
147difference between clearing mark & clearing bearing..
148what is great circle sailing.
149what is cardinal marks and preferred channel buoys 
150what information you  get from ARPA 
151on a paper showed various targets with their relative vector on ppi.identify situationas.
152draw wreck dangerous for surface navigation
153draw pilot boarding station
154whts P.I. ? explain how to use it correctly?
155few more questions which i dont remember 
156how many sight u can take in the morning
157whts the limit for ex- meridian sight
158Ship is Stopped initailly, Now rudder 10 degrees to port, engines dead slow ahead, where stern and bow will swing?
159ROR cards n situation..restricted visibility, both cases RADAR operational n inoperational u r duty officer u heard 1 prolonged blast on port bow. Action?(rule 19d 1 n 2)
160how to obtain noon position by sun full plotting only floating(lond by chron and merpass), why pl is N-S in morning n E-W at MERPASS
161what is eco sounder and RADAR principle , working, limitations
162why gyro compass fails at higher latitude?
163what is  MERSAS and IAMSAR.
164Ship draft 17 mtrs , you are approaching 20 mtrs depth,,,what effects ship will experience?
165methods of obtaining compass error  and explaination on transit bearings
166what is Fog signals
167what do you mean by routine charts and  pilot chart ? how many volumes?
168what is ON  the arc and  OFF  the arc in sextant means?
169what is sextant altitute of polaris?
170what is procedure of chart correction?
171what is fairway buoy? and its use?which side you  willl keep this?
172what is isolated danger mark ? its top mark ? rhythem
173what is AMVER and its use?
174 what is inspires and its limit?
175To avoid a chocked hat  ,what should be angle b/w lighthouses?
176preacautions in narrow channel?
177what is phasing and ranging in echo sounder
178what do you mean by deviation card and how will you prepare it ?
179difference between barograph and barometer?
180which method should prefer for sight calculation at morning? and why?
181what do you get after taking sight? and your next plan?
182how will you transfer your position from one chart to another chart?
183what is safe water mark,region A, B buoys?its use ,shape,light,and colour?
184wreck not danger for navigation ,how much distance u will keep from this?
185how do you do a sight calcualtion??
186how do u know sun at the meridian?
187how do u know chart has been corrected ?
188how many volumes in ALRS,how they are name? for a particular area how will u find out a selective volume?
189what information u will get from chart cataloge?
190define safe “speed”?
191what is meridian passage?
192what is answering pandent? and its use?
193what do you  mean by moon SD , augmentation,?
194radar target suddenly disappear ,whts it mean?
195difference between racon,& becon?
196explain turning circle? how much advance for a normal vessel?
197why we need a magnetic deviation card?
198principle of echo sounder,doppler log and auto pilot?
199what is distress signal by flag??
200contents of notice to mariner,cumulative notice and annual notice to mariner?
201what informatin information from chart catalogue?
202what is pilots/sailing directions?
203if you  are in mediterrean sea, which SD u will refer and how will you come to know?
204how will  you correct aneroid barometer ?who will correct this?
205what is another name of routiene chart?
206what do you mean by SART and EPIRB?
207difference between azimuth and bearing?
208what do you mean by wind rose?
209sound signal of dredger,aground vessel,anchored vessel?
210 In poor visibilty when  you are going to encounter in open sea ,no target can u reduce speed?
211how will you fix ur vsls posn if gps fails?
212how will you  identify lighthouse?
213what is flashing,occulting,isophase?
214how will you  apply rule 5,6,7,8 & 18 onboard?
215ROR cards for vsl towing more than 50 mtrs in length in RAM condt. and length of tow exceeds 200 mtrs and its day signal and fog signal.
216card for vessel aground day signal and fog signal and action to be taken if vessel is right ahead.
217ROR card for PDV more than 50 mtrs in length with port side seen. Action as OOW.
218Chart symbols for- wreck at which mast only is visible, reporting point, 20 mtrs countour line.
219contents of mariners handbook.
220what is a navigable semicircle in a TRS?
221how will you  take meridian sight? 
222what are the errors in gyro?
223what do  you mean by latitude error?
224What do you mean by compasses compared?
225great circle sailing from mallaca strait to south Africa
226composite circle sailing and why you  do composite circle sailing
227what is routine chart and what information u get from it
228what is Blind sector in Radar
229what is sextant  error, and how u will come to know that ur index error is correct
230if echosounder show two marking one above and one below which one iscorrect .
231vessel  anchor dragging  action
232MOB in TSS, what is your  Action
233which turn you will prefer in baltic williomson single turn or sharnov (failing question)asked nearly 15 situation ( all correct)
234quote rule 5 and its detail explanations 
235what is Gnomic chart
236what is ship routeing and what information we get from it
237Quote Rule 9, 13, 15..
238what is Gyro error and  how will  you take in normal forecast & overcast..
239what does muster list preparation mean.
240how to approach TRS..
241Navtex settings..EGC messages..
242difference between clearing mark & clearing bearing..
243what is great circle sailing..
244Lights and of NUC, RAM, Pilot, SV, FV,
245how do you know about Steering failure?
246Difference between Long by Chron and merpass?
247Towing vessel on port bow?
248 qoute Rule 18 and 19 with detail explanation of each paragraph.
249what is Leading lights?
250what is IAMSAR and  MERSAR
251list of Publications on bridge ?
252Narrow channel Rule?
253IALA Bouyage system
254what is meaning of Boxing of compass.
255explain about intercept method and  mer pass and show diagramatically n write the formula
256how will you calculate height of tide at secondary port ?write all the steps
257what is raising of light n how to calculate the raising distance?
258situation you  are CBD  and NUC  crosing from port side state action? Positiong of lights of nuc (annex 1)
259you  are  PD vessel open sea ,no traffic you see a trawler right ahead your action? How will you determine she is at anchor n positioning of her lights?
260you  heard  4 short blast what does it mean??
261what is landing signal
262you  are  approaching a port and your vessel agrounds state your action
263what is c correction
264Characteristics, limitations and efficiency of a radar
265What is north up, co. up, head up mode of radar
266Aspect and its importance in collision avoidance
267Speed over ground & speed through water difference,which is to be used for
268collision avoidance and why?
269Difference between ECDIS and ENC
270Wreck with visible mast, wreck dangerous to surface navigation & wreck not dangerous to surface navigation symbols on raster charts
271How does a wreck marking bUoy look like?
272Corresponding symbols on an ECDIS of the ones asked above.
273explain how is speed adjusted in different cond
274explain  limitation of radar
275 explain why range and bearing discrimination occur
276explain what are constraints imposed on radar range
277explain what are the effects of wx on radar
278what is sea clutter and rain clutter ???
279you  see  two red light identify and take action
280towing alongside lights and then action
281pilot vsl light
282pilot vsl lght if length more than 50m
283placement of fwd mast light
284main mast light
285what is horrizontal spacing  of lights
286full annex 1 of ROR
287how a navtex msg comes
288how does the msg goes from epirb
289what is LRIT
290 what is SSAS
291 GMDSS equipments  in area a3
292what is polar navigation
293how will you  find direction if magnetic  and gyro compass  are unreliable
294what is T and P correction and how do you correct it
295how chart correction is done  when using block
296how to get radio medical help
297what is content of ALRS volume
298what is content of BPG
299what is leading lights
300what are methods of finding of gyro error 
301what is south cardinal mark
302passage planning from mumbai to Southampton
303what are navtex frequencies and  what does ZCZC mean
304what is long by chron  and  lat by mer.alt
305own vessel NUC  in TSS  and CBD  crossing  4nm from port side not taking any action // what is your anchor
306action,shallow patch on stbd action
307own vessel  PD  another PD  vessel crossing from stbd in tss //  what is your action
308what is anchorage area in malacca strait and  action?
309In RV  situation , heard 4 short blasts action
310what is difference  between  noon sight and noon position
311what is spring and neap tides
312In ROR  card ,stbd lateral mark IALA b ( draw)
313what is search patterns  and  their pros N cons
314what is  responsibilities of an overtaking vessel.
315fog signals for anchor and aground vsl.
316 what is limitations of ecdis.
317you  heard  a fog signal fwd of beam and what is your action??
318sextant uses..about sextant angles..
319formula for vertical sextant angle.
320what  are errors of sextant..and how 2 correct them.
321when rudder is stuck to  5  degree  to  stbd and what is  your action??
322steering failure, what is your action??
323vessel collided  and what is   your action ??
324what is manouvring characteristics of vessel.
325what is south west monsoon
326formation of clouds
327how  to  correct charts and explain in detail
328contents of annual summary of notices and cumulative notices
329what is transverse thrust
330what is Sextant, principal, errors.
331Principle of AIS
332you saw west cardinal mark right ahead and what is action.
333radar characteristic and deficiencies.
334how do you  set up navtex??
335chart symbol.. wreck dangerous to navigation, rock, shallow patch shown on chart
336arrival port chart for Singapore from chart catalogue.
337Annual notices to mariner content.
338isolated danger mark bouy specification.
339define iso phase, flashing and occulting..
340main engine failure.. your action as duty officer..
341ECDIS and ECS difference..
342Controls of autopilot..
343what do understand by yawing control.
344Normal visibility crosing situation 
345qoute rule 15 and 8(F).
346what is new danger mark,special mark,isolated danger and preffered channel buoys of region A and B 
347whart are raster and vector charts
348 when to call master and what actions to be taken if its rv. 
349 how to determine visibility is detoriating in night.
350action to be taken if person falls overboard.
351turning circle diagram- what is advance,tactical dia and tranfer what are the imo requirements for that?
352THE RANGE AND VISIBLITY OF MASTHEAD LIGHTS
353WHAT INFORMATION DOES YOU GET IAMSAR
354WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY COMPATIBILITY AND SEGREGATION IN IMDG.
355UNDER WHAT SITUATION CAN YOU USE AN INSHORE TRAFFIC ZONE
356EXPLAIN THE REGULATION CONCERNING THE RISK OF COLLISSION.
357C.B.D. VESSEL AT ANCHOR, WHAT SIGNALS WILL SHE SHOW.
358C.B.D. VESEL IN FOG DROPS ANCHOR, WHAT WILL BE HER FOG SIGNAL
359CHARTS THAT HAVE NOT BEEN CORRECTED FOR THE PAST TWO YEARS, HOW WILL YOU GO ABOUT CORRECTING THEM.
360WHERE WILL YOU FIND THE LATEST EDITION OF CHARTS AND HOW IS THE INFORMATION PRESENTED.
361Make a passage plan from Mumbai to Suez.
362What information will you receive from your seniors, and how will it help u in making plan?
363From where will you get information about traffic density in any area?
364Explain routine chart? 
365How will you determine position plotting interval
366Vessel on port bow  and  its action
367Vessel on stbd quartor , what is action
368Correct a chart which has not been corrected for long time
369what is iamsar and  its details ?
370MOB on stbd side , what is your action ?
371how radar plotting is done  and gave for a overtaking vsl
372 quote rule 2 , 8 , 10 
373buoyage & cards (day + night )
374what was your duties as a cadet
375How does bearing error occur in a radar?
376Errors of the echo sounder with explanation?
377What is SHA,GHA,LHA etc..
378Why SHA of stars given in almanac and GHAof planets and in case of stars for 3 years
379Sextant  errors and how will you take a sight(he has a sextant in hiscabin)?
380can you use the 2010 almanac in 2011 and how?
381explanation of the corrections applied to the sights?
382some situations in ROR mainly crossing and overtaking (also in restricted visibility)?
383quote rule 19  and  rule 6?
384what is Transverse thrust?
385handing/taking over watch at sea and also in port?
386action when entering area of RV ,seeing a  vessel aground?
387what is horizontal and vertical sectors of navigation  lights?
388What’s meant by LRIT and  Its need on ships?
389What is navtex  and Why only for coastal areas?
390What you will do in mid ocean  for EGC ?
391What’s meant by the term EGC and  Elaborate and explain.
392What are  the various examinations conducted under STCW ?
393what is GMDSS carriage requirements In SEA  area A3.
394How would you know which satellite your  EGC receiver is locked in on?
395Explain telemotor system in detail with diagram.
396Explain buoyage system. Explain cardinal marks. What’s meant by conventional direction of buoyage system?
397Characterstics and limitations of radar in detail.
398Narrow channel and you are duty officer what will you  do ?
399Towing alongside lights and action .
400what is meaning of Polar navigation..
401what is Difference between ship having DOC  and without DOC.
402What is meaning of Tidal diamonds on navigational charts.
403How does bearing error occur in a radar?
404Errors of the echo sounder with explanation?
405What is SHA,GHA,LHA etc..
406Why SHA of stars given in almanac and GHA of planets and in case of stars for 3 days
407what are Sextant  errors and how will you  take a sight(he has a sextant in his cabin)?
408Can you use the 2010 almanac in 2011,how?
409Explanation of the corrections applied to the sights?
410Some situations in ROR mainly crossing and overtaking (also in restricted visibility)?
411What is meaning of Transverse thrust?
412Handing/taking over watch at sea and also in port?
413Action when entering area of RV ,seeing a  vessel aground?
414Horizontal and vertical sectors of navigational lights in details?
415ROR CARDS – AGROUND VSL , NUC VSL AND IALA BUOYAGE CARDS are very important .
416What is SBM and the mooring operation to SBM ?
417What are the errors of speed log ?
418what is Admiralty sailing directions  and information we get from it ?
419what is Ocean passages of the world .
420Routeing charts – information obtained and ocean regions covered .
421what is Synoptic charts .
422 Ways of determining stars in the sky . Star finder – details and how to use ?
423LRIT – details and functioning and also the location of the LRIT data centre in India ( DG shipping premises , jahaz bhavan , Mumbai )
424Also the SOLAS Ch V reg regarding which contracting governments  can acquire LRIT information .
425Different types of charts .
426Contents of MERSAR , Different search patterns .
427Difference between azimuth and amplitude with diagram.
428what is Star Finder, How To Take Sights All Methods,Visible And Sensible Horizon
429what is  meaning of Ebb and Flood Tide, Neap  and  Spring tide. 
430A vessel of 100m length, which ran aground in RV ,you have to  go forwrad for the ringing of bell, what will you do ? How to start?
431What are all the additional precautions you will take into account for determining the safe speed of your vessel with operational RADAR?
432Show fog signal of a vessel aground by banging on the table?
433How will you take over watch?
434Methods of determining compass error?
435Which method you will prefer azimuth or amplitude? Explain amplitude method.
436How will you navigate in ice?
437What is ice patrol?
438Frequencies of navtex?
439Explanation of GDOP error.
440What is your companies UKC policy?
441Explain the effect of squat and its calculation?
442ROR situation:- NUC on port bow action?
443Restricted visibility and your vessel is at anchor what fog signal will you sound?
444Various fog signals:- PD vessel underway but stopped, pilot vessel, NUC, CBD
445You are in distress how will you indicate this to other vessels?(Distress signals)
446What are Various types of fogs?
447How to predict fog??
448What is region A and Region B?
449Safe water mark right ahead in a channel, Take action?
450CBD on your port Bow, take action?
451You are overtaking Sailing Vessel whose primarily responsibility to keep out and explain it?
452How will you determine you are overtaking?
453how would  you Passage plan KANDLA TO JABELALI
454what is meaning of Geographical range, nominal range, luminous range.
455How will you calculate the distance  from the light house whose height is given on ALL?
456Suppose you havent taken compass error for last four to five days and now you have to alter the course then what all corrections will you apply to the gyro?
457Suppose you have a cancelled chart onboard and you have to sail on that chart. How will you go about it?
458What is the requirement of steering gear system??? What are the test you carry out for it?  And what actions you take in case of a steering gear failure??
459A crossing situation with a shallow patch on stbd….describe ur action?
460What will you do in event of hearing a fog signal forward of your beam in RV?
461Principle of a gyro compass?
462Explain  hazards of high lattiude sailing
463Plan  a passage from  japan to US(cross  pacific)
464Publications required  for the passage plan
465Can own vessel  overtaking  another PDV in TSS
466Same situaton  in  restricted visibility
467What are general precuations  in TSS, RV, overtaking
468Right  ahead three white lights
469Lights and shapes of  dredger & ram vessel
470Explain  overtaking  in TSS
471How will you determine risk of collision?
472Own vassel CBD, two fishing vessels  on  port  and  STBD bow
473Gyro falure in open sea – what are actions  and  precautions
474Leading lights and sectored leading lights and their practical uses (please refer to bridge team management book).
475Narrow channel gyro and magnetic failure and the pilot wants a heading fast.
476Pen down everything you know about fishing vessels including lights shapes flags type of nets light positioning and sound signals.
477Open seas and vessel 4 points on port bow, starboard quarter action.
478Close quarter situation and then collision, give detailed action.
479Give an example of an actual emergency on board.
480what are Contents of INTERCO
481Audible ranges for vessels of different length.
482What are signal for a vessel aground in restricted visiblity.
483Vertical and horizontal positioning of lights of vessels more than 100 metres in length.
484Is there any rule that says that the stern light must be in the fore and aft centre line of the ship.
485Sound signal for overtaking another vessel from the starboard side in a narrow channel.
486What is safe speed also explain characteristics efficiency and limitations of radar and also constraints imposed by the radar range scale in use.
487what is  turning ability & stopping distance with respect to Rule 6.
488What is isophase and group occulting light.
489Which vessel will show a yellow light and the characteristics of the same.
490Pilot vessel more than 50 metres underway, lights.
491Vertical and horizontal positioning of sidelights for vessel of more than 20 metres in length.
492What is short and prolonged blast.
493Vertical and horizontal positioning of a dredgers lights.
494Lights and characteristics of an air cushioned vessel.
495What is boxing a compass.
496Why are two whistles carried on ships and their requirements according to annex ii.
497Calculate noon position, and which method will you prefer.
498What are the particulars of south cardinal, safe water and isolated danger buoy.
499What is conventional direction of buoyage.
500What are the contents of weekly notices to mariners.
501Will you call master at what atmospheric drop of pressure.
502Meteorological instruments carried on board.
503What are weather ships and how are they classified.
504How will you check the reading of a gold slide and which reading will you take first.
505Which chapter does distress come under interco.
506What distress signals would a small wooden boat show.
507what is MMSI number
508First thing to do when you enter chartroom / wheelhouse.
509Effect of speed on turning circle.
510If a vessel is aground why should an oow. Inform engine room.
511How do you go about plotting a great-circle course and what are the merits and de-merits.
512How do you go about correcting various publications, eg. ALRS,ALL and ASD.
513What is cavitation / transverse thrust.
514Describe north and west cardinal marks.
515Duration of prolonged blast / sound signals in narrow channels / signals to attract attention.
516What signals can be supplimented by light.
517What are the functional requirements for gmdss as per solas.
518Horizontal sector of lights.
519Meaning of combined lantern & when can it be carried.
520What is Occulting & flashing lights.
521Why is a starboard turn preferred in ROR?
522What  are Controls on steering gear systems.
523Various errors on when a celestial observation is taken.
524Obtain medical advice by radio.
525DESCRIBE BEAUFORT SCALE CONTENTS, WIND SPEED TO WAVE HEIGHT VALUES.
526Difference between tide, tidal streams and currents.
527Lights & fog signals  of vessel aground and action on seeing this vessel.
528Display lights of  CBD not making way and making way, action on seeing this vessel.
529Explain everything about roeuting charts.
530How are loadline zones marked and why.
531Explain refraction correction for sight reduction.
532Navigating in the english channel and action upon sighting racon ‘d’ on your radar ppi. In restricted visibility.
533Controls on steering gear systems with diagram.
534Various errors on when a celestial observation is taken.
535how will you Obtain medical advice by radio.
536Difference between tide, tidal streams and currents.
537Have you taken any celestial observations; describe procedures for x-meridian, long by chron and intercept methods.
538Discuss the merits and the demerits of long by chron and intercept; which one would you prefer and why.
539What is a0, a1, and a2 corrections in a polaris observation.
540Chart symbols like : shinto shrine, fresh water springs, buddhist temple, unsurveyed coastline, fishing stakes etc.
541Stranded vessel in sight, action.
542Action to abandon a vessel.
543what are Radar characteristics, efficiency and limitations
544What are Limits of ex-meridian method.
545what is Stopping distance, head reach and turning circle.
546Effect of speed on turning circle.
547If a vessel is aground why should an OOW,  Inform engine room.
548What is PORT STATE CONTROL and its powers.
549How do you go about plotting a great-circle course and what are the merits and de-merits.
550Format for a SITREP report.
551What is DOPPLER SHIFT and how is this effect applied to the log.
552How do you go about correcting various publications, eg. Alrs, list of lights, asd, etc
553What is meaning of cavitation
554What is a near miss acident.
555How does EPIRB calculate position  of persons in distress.
556Pilot vessel more than 100 mts in length lights.
557Number of SART on board.
558Ask transmitting station to repeat following.
559Fog signal forward of beam restricted visibility,what is your action.
560Correction of ecdis charts.
561Amver/inspires where will you look for stations to report (ind nm annual issue). Amver type of reports.
562what is Vertical positioning of masthead & side lights.
563Position of manoeuvring lights.
564Sailing vessel  identification.
565Meaning of combined lantern & when can it be carried.
566Sailing vessel end on, action.
567Fishing vessel overtaking you, action.
568Fishing vessel hampered by gear , what is light of the shown by vessel.
569OPEN SEA STEERING GEAR FAILURE, what is your action ?
570Other vessel overtaking ,what is your  action.
571Why is a starboard turn preferred in ror?
572what is Turning circle of last ship.
573How will you ensure all round visibility of rigid replica flag ‘a’.
574what is Vertical seperation of masthead lights.
575Variation / deviation definition.
576Buoyage full including uses and rhythm?
577Which side you will  pass a safe water mark in narrow channel?
578Is trawler hav anchor lights?
579What is day signal for sailing vessel if propelled by machinery?
580Define RAM  and CBD in detail ?
581What  all vessel comes under manoeuvering with difficulty?
582Is towing RAM  then what sound signal by vessel being towed?
583Vessel aground and NUC @ anchor what is fog signal?
584In RV If you hear continous ringing of bell what is your action?
585What is difference between making way and underway?
586You see a  CBD on port bow in 3Nm range what action you willtake and  by which rule?
587What is horizontal sector and what is the  cut off range for MH & Side lights given by  IMO .why explain?
588What is meaning  of  abort point? What precaution you  take prior crossing abort pontt?
589How will you  calculate wheel over position ? Explain your turning ability in wheel over point?
590you are fresher  3/o  what instruction you  give for your AB  before posting lookout ?
591What is scanty information  given by radar explain?
592Explain difference   between sea & ground stabilization ?
593Which turn is suitable in rv for mob y nd disavantages of williamson turn?
594Where will  you  get piracy and armed robbery information ?
595you are  in offcoast of chennai about 50 Nm and How will you transmit distress ? 
596What is range of navtex ? How many nav areas and what is place of nav areas in russian federation?
597Define dew point how it is calculated from wet and dry bulb temp ?
598Define storm areas?
599Explain wind rose and what is backing of wind ?
600Day signal spacing and dimensions of cylinder as per annex of of ROR?
601What is inshore traffic zone?
602You are in TSS  and a Fishing Vessel  crossing what is your action? I told its her duty to keep clear but he said he is not keeping clear what is your action …i told to avoid collision  I will enter inshore traffic or separation zone?
603Define area  A1, A2 , A3 , A4 and duplication in area A4 and navtex emission?
604How you will ascertain risk of collision exist or not?
605What is ionisation delay?
606What information  yow  get from tidal stream atlas and how you use de diamond in charts?
607Is neap tide  mentioned first or spring tide in tidal stram atlas?
The following questions/answers came from candidates right after they had finished their oral exam – these are the questions that the captain had asked them about the Rules of the Road

Rule 2 Responsibilities

(Q) Define Rule 2-Responsibilities?

(a) That everybody is responsible for any action taken aboard a vessel, and if involved in a collision then both parties are at fault, because the stand-on vessel did not use rule 7 risk of collision and rule 8 Action to avoid collision.

(Q) What is the responsibilities of a skipper on the vessel?

(a) To make sure the vessel is a safe and healthy working environment

(Q) What are the responsibilities of individuals aboard your vessel?

(a) To make sure their health is good and if they see any dangers then to report them to the skipped

Rule 3 General Definitions

(Q) Describe the term “not under command”?

(a) Means a vessel through some exceptional circumstances is unable to deviate from the course she is following.

(Q) Describe the term” vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre”?

(a) Is a vessel through the nature of her work; she is unable to deviate from her course she is following.

(Q) Describe a “vessel constrained by her draught”?

(a) Is a power-driven vessel, because of her draught in relation to the depth of water she is in, cannot deviate from the course she is following

(Q) Describe the word “Underway”?

(a) When a vessel is not at anchor, aground or made fast to the shore, and is only going through the water by tide and/or wind.

(Q) Describe the word “Making way”?

(a) When a vessel is being propelled through the water by engine propulsion, sails or oars

(Q) In the Rules of the road, in some rules the word “vessel” comes up, but what would you say a vessel is?

(a) Any type of watercraft than can carry personnel.

(Q) Describe a power-driven vessel?

(a) Any vessel that has an engine to propel herself through the water

(Q) Describe a sailing vessel?

(a) A vessel using sails and not using engine propulsion to push her through the sea.

(Q) Describe the word “seaplane”?

(a) Any aircraft that can land on water.

(Q) Your asked about the “Length and Breadth” of your vessel, what is this?

(a) The longest length of your vessel and the widest part of the vessel, you’ll get this from your “Stability book” and the “Record of particulars”

(Q) The term “when vessels are in sight of one another” what does this mean?

(a) When you can see the vessel visually by the naked eye during daylight or at night, Rule 34 explains the sound signals used “When vessels are in sight of one another”

Rule 5 Look-out.

(Q) Describe rule 5 look-out?

(a) By keeping a good look-out using eyes, ears and by using all navigation aids including radios for listening out for navigation warnings, so you can appraise any situation ahead of you.

Rule 6 Safe Speed.

(Q) Describe a safe speed by all vessels?

(a) Every vessel shall go at a safe speed so that you can stop your vessel in half the distance you can see and use the other half to manoeuvre away from danger, taking the following factors into account: –

By all vessels:-

  1. The state of visibility
  2. Density of traffic
  3. How manoeuvrable your vessel is, and how quick you can stop your vessel
  4. The glare of your lights or light from the shore, you might not see the harbour entrance
  5. Weather, sea state and any navigation hazards
  6. The draught of your own vessel
(Q) Describe a safe speed by vessels with operational radar?
  • The limitations of your radar
  • The scale in use ( too small a scale could be hiding targets )
  • Weather, sea and rain clutter ( target could be hiding in clutter )
  • Ice, small vessels not detected by radar
  • Vessels detected by radar
  • Determine the range of other vessels

Rule 7 Risk of Collision.

(Q) What would you use to determine a risk of collision?

(a) Compass, radar and visual bearings (visual bearings being the most reliable)

(Q) What scale is your radar(s) on?

(a) 6 and 12 miles.

(Q) Why is your radar on the 12 miles scale?

(a) For early detection of targets.

(Q) You’ve taken 1 radar plot of a target, would you alter with this plot?

(a) No.

(Q) You’ve taken a 2nd radar plot of a target, would you alter with this plot?

(a) No.

(Q) Why would you not alter with 1 and 2 plots?

(a) Rule 7 part (c) says not to rely on scanty information, especially scanty radar information

(Q) What are the dangers with radar plotting?

(a) Time is being wasted and could put your vessel into a collision course

(Q) If the bearings are steady, is there a risk of collision?

(a) Yes.

(Q) If the bearings are not steady, could there still be a risk of collision?
(a) Yes.

(Q) What situations?

(a) With a large vessel, a long tow or a close quarter situation.

(Q) If plotting a vessel towing a vessel towing another vessel with the length of tow being 2 miles long, what are you going to take bearings of?

(a) The stem of the towing vessel and the stern of the vessel being towed, everything in between is a risk of collision.

Rule 8 Action to avoid collision.

(Q) What 4 actions can you take to avoid a collision?
  • An early and bold alteration of course, as long as you do not put your vessel into another close quarter situation/risk of collision with another vessel
  • Slow your vessel down
  • Stop your vessel
  • Come astern with your vessel
(Q) Why are you always making an alteration of course, why do you not stop your vessel?

(a) To make sure the risk of collision/close quarter situation is taken out, also the other vessel ill see the change of aspect of your vessel (Visually and by radar)

(Q) If you make an alteration of course, what have you to watch out for?

(a) That you don not put yourself into a close quarter situation with another vessel

(Q) If you make an alteration of course, why is it dangerous to make a series of small alterations

(a) Because you could go into a close quarters situation/risk of collision

(Q) If you’re unsure about what to do in a situation, what’s the best thing to do?

(a) Slow your vessel down, best to stop your vessel altogether.

Rule 9 Narrow Channels.

(Q) What side of the narrow channel would you keep?

(a) The starboard side of the narrow channel as long as your vessel is in safe water.(Morse “G”) (2 prolonged blasts followed by 1 short blast on the whistle

(Q) What would you sound to overtake a vessels port side?

(a) (Morse “Z”)(2 prolonged blasts followed by 2 short blasts on the whistle)

(Q) What would you sound if you agree to be overtaken in a narrow channel?

(a) (Morse “C”)(1 prolonged, 1 short, 1 prolonged, 1 short blast on the whistle)

(Q) What would you sound if you disagree to be overtaken in a narrow channel?

(a) (5 or more short and rapid blasts on the whistle)

(Q) What would you sound coming up to a bend in a narrow channel?

(a) (1 prolonged blast on the whistle)

(Q) If there is another vessel coming around the bend and he heard your warning signal, what would he sound?

(a) (1 prolonged blast on the whistle to let you know he is there)

(Q) What 3 vessels do not impede any other vessels using a narrow channel?

(a) A fishing vessel, sailing vessel and vessels under 20 metres.

(Q) Are you allowed to cross a narrow channel?

(a) Yes, as long as you do not impede any vessel using the narrow channel

(Q) If you where in a narrow channel, and there is a vessel crossing a narrow channel, what would you sound to get him to stop and let you pass?

(a) Five or more short and rapid blasts on the whistle to indicate that your unsure of his intentions.

Rule 10 Traffic Separation Schemes.

(Q) How do you join a lane?

(a) At the start of a lane or at a small an angle as possible to the lane.

(Q) How do you leave a lane?

(a) At the end of a lane or at a small an angle as possible to the lane.

(Q) How do you cross the lanes?

(a) At 90 degrees to the general flow of traffic (DO NOT SAY TO THE LANE)

(Q) Why 90 degrees?

(a) Because it’s the quickest way across, and vessels in the lane can see the aspect of your vessel.

(Q) If crossing a lane, what 3 vessels do not impede any vessel using a lane?

(a) A fishing vessel, a sailing vessel and a power-driven vessel under 20metres.

(Q) What vessels can use the inshore zone?

(a) A power-driven vessel under 20 metres, sailing vessels, fishing vessels, vessels going to or from a port, going from port to port in the scheme, going into anchor to do emergency repairs, to avoid immediate danger, to lay submarine cables or to do repairs to buoys within the scheme.

(Q) What vessels can use the traffic separation zone?

(a) Fishing vessels, anchor for emergency repairs, crossing vessels, to avoid immediate danger, to lay submarine cables or to do repairs to buoys within the scheme.

(Q) Where can you anchor in a scheme?

(a) Anywhere, as long as it’s to do emergency repairs, try and avoid anchoring in the lanes and at the terminations.

(Q) What would you do if you had to stop your main engine to do emergency repairs in a lane and had to anchor?

(a) Call up the port and advise them, also put out a security warning other vessels that you’re at anchor, put up anchor lights and daytime signal.

(Q) Where can you fish in the scheme?

(a) Anywhere, but if fishing in a lane then go with the flow of traffic, and try and avoid fishing at the terminations.

(Q) Would you fish in a traffic separation scheme?

(a) This is a personnel question, there is a lot of large traffic there; you would be putting your crew and vessel into dangerous situations.

(Q) Could a supertanker leave a lane at 90 degrees come into the inshore zone to a pilot station, pick up a pilot and then cross to the opposite inshore zone at 90 degrees?

(a) No, he would have to leave the lane at a small an angle as possible to the lanes.

(Q) If you’re in a power-driven vessel, crossing a scheme and on your port bow is another power-driven vessel in a lane, the bearing are steady and the distance is closing, what are you going to do?

(a) First find out length of vessel you are in.

(Q) Does it matter what size the power-driven vessel is that you’re in?

(a) Yes, if under 20 metres and crossing a lane, then you would have to give way to every vessel in the lane.

(Q) Your in a 30 metres power-driven vessel crossing a lane, and there is a power-driven vessel on your port bow in a lane, the bearings are steady and the distance is closing, what are you going to do?

(a) Stand-on with caution, maintaining your course and speed

(Q) How would the power-driven vessel leave the lane?

(a) He would make an early and bold alteration to starboard sounding 1 short blast on the whistle indicating he is altering to starboard.

(Q) Would he line up your stern and go around it?

(a) No, this would be a close quarter situation and could make you alter your course and put into a collision course with another vessel.

(Q) After the vessel came around your stern, how would he get back into the lane?

(a) At a small angle as possible to the general flow of traffic.

(Q) If you where in any vessel, just outside the scheme, would you manoeuvre here?

(a) No, it says if not using the scheme, then to give it a wide a margin as possible.

(Q) If you’re fishing in a lane, and there is a power-driven vessel overtaking you, what are you going to do?

(a) Stand-on with caution, you have to use rule 13 Overtaking.

(Q) If you’re crossing a lane in a fishing vessel and any vessel is on your port bow in a lane, the bearings are steady and the distance is closing, what are you going to do?

(a) If you’re crossing and the bearings are steady, then you have to give-way to all vessels in a lane.

Short cut to remember which vessels use the inshore zone and the separation zone
Vessels that can use Inshore Zone
Vessels that can use the Separation Zone
3 boats + P.P.AIDFACID
Fishing
Sailing
PDV under 20 metres

Boats going from Port to Port
Boats anchoring
Boats leaving the lane to avoid immediate danger
Also
Vessels restricted in her ability to manoeuvre laying cables/buoys
Fishing Vessels
Vessels going into Anchor
Crossing vessels
Boats leaving the lane to avoid immediate danger
Also
Vessels restricted in her ability to manoeuvre laying cables/buoys
(Q) On a sailing vessel, what is deemed as the windward side?

(a) Opposite side to which the main sail is carried, windward side is usually the port side of the vessel.

Rule 13 Overtaking.

(Q) What’s classed as an overtaking vessel?

(a) When you’re coming up on another vessel MORE than 22.5 degrees abaft the beam.

(Q) What light will you see at night if you’re overtaking another vessel?

(a) The sternlight of the other vessel.

(Q) What are your priorities when overtaking another vessel?

(a) To keep well clear of the vessel being overtaken until well past and clear.

(Q) What distance would you say is well past and clear?

(a) At least 4 miles.

(Q) If you’re overtaking another vessel and now you’re abeam of the other vessel are you overtaking or crossing?

(a) You’re still an overtaking vessel until well past and clear

(Q) If you’re in any vessel and any vessel is overtaking you what would you do?

(a) Stand-on with caution keeping your course and speed.

(Q) If you’re coming up on a vessel at 22.5 degrees abaft the beam, are you a crossing vessel or overtaking vessel?

(a) You’re a crossing vessel, the word MORE is missing.

(Q) If you’re overtaking a vessel, you’re on his starboard quarter and the other vessel is on your stem, what action will you take?

(a) Take the shortest course, sound 2 short blasts on the whistle and make an early and bold alteration to port and go around the other vessel’s stern.

(Q) If you’re overtaking a vessel, you’re on his port quarter and the other vessel is on your stem, what action will you take?

(a) Take the shortest course, sound 1 short blast on the whistle and make an early and bold alteration to starboard and go around the other vessel’s stern.

(Q) If you’re coming up on a vessel, and one minute you’re seeing his sternlight, then his sidelight, then his sternlight, is this a crossing situation or an overtaking situation?

(a) This is an overtaking situation.

Rule 14 Head-on Situations.

(Q) According to the rule, what types of vessels do you need?

(a) 2 power-driven vessels.

(Q) In a head-on situation between 2 power-driven vessels, how do you know it’s a head-on situation at night?

(a) Because you would see his masthead light in between his sidelights.

(Q) What action will you take with 2 power-driven vessels in a head-on situation?

(a) Both vessels will sound 1 short blast on the whistle and make an early and bold alteration to starboard.

(Q) What action will you take if you’re in a power-driven vessel, and in a head-on situation with a fishing vessel, also what action would the fishing vessel take?

(a) You will sound 1 short blast on the whistle and make an early and bold alteration to starboard, the fishing vessel will stand-on with caution because he is most hampered.

Rule 15 Crossing Situations.

(Q) What type of vessels do you need for this rule?

(a) 2 power-driven vessels.

(Q) How do you know who is the give way vessel in a crossing situation?

(a) You’re the give way vessel if you have another power-driven vessel on your starboard side.

Rule 16. Action by Give way Vessels.

(Q) If you were the Give way vessel, what action would you take?

(a) Make an early and bold alteration of course, you could slow down, stop your vessel or come astern, but if plenty of distance, an alteration is the best means to avoid a collision.

Rule 17. Action by Stand-on Vessels.

(Q) If you’re the stand-on vessel, what action will you take?

(a) Stand-on with caution, keeping your course and speed.

(Q) If the Give way vessel were standing on, what warning signal would you give him?

(a) 5 or more short and rapid blasts on the whistle, to indicate that you are unsure of his intentions.

(Q) If you’re in a power-driven vessel, and on your port bow there is another power-driven vessel, who is standing-on, collision course, you’ve gave him 5 or more short and rapid blasts on the whistle, you got no response from him, what action will you take now?

(a) Make an early and bold alteration away from him, in this case, 1 short blast on the whistle and an early and bold alteration to starboard and show him your sternlight.

(Q) If you’re in a fishing vessel, and on your starboard bow is a sailing vessel, who is standing-on, collision course, you’ve gave him 5 or more short and rapid blasts on the whistle, you got no response from him, what action will you take now?

(a) Make an early and bold alteration away from him, in this case, 2 short blasts on the whistle and make an early and bold alteration to port.

(Q) What actions for the stand-on vessel if the give way vessel stands-on?

(a) If the give way vessel stands on; the stand-on vessel may alter course (outside 4 miles – Rule of thumb distance) (inside 4 miles – Rule of thumb distance) If in a close quarter situation and the give way vessel stands on; the stand-on vessel shall alter course.

Rule 18. Responsibilities between vessels.

(Q) If you are in a power-driven vessel, there are 6 vessels that you should give way to, name them?
  1. A power-driven vessel on your starboard bow.
  2. A sailing vessel
  3. A fishing vessel
  4. A vessel not under command
  5. A vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre
  6. If the circumstances of the case admit, a vessel constrained by her draught.
(Q) If you are in a fishing vessel, then you have to give way to 4 vessels, name them?
  1. A fishing vessel on your starboard bow
  2. A vessel not under command
  3. A vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre
  4. If the circumstances of the case admit, a vessel constrained by her draught.
(Q) If you’re in a power-driven vessel, or fishing vessel, would you stand-on or give way to a vessel constrained by her draught?

(a) Your best to Give way to a vessel constrained by her draught.

(Q) Is there any rule that says you should try to avoid impeding the safe passage of a vessel constrained by her draught?

(a) Yes, Rule 18d part (1) says any vessel other than a vessel not under command or a vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre, shall if the circumstances of the case admit avoid impeding the safe passage of a vessel constrained by her draught.

(Q) Usually what type of vessel would a vessel constrained by her draught be?

(a) Very large supertanker carrying crude oil.

(Q) So what would happen if you stood-on to a vessel constrained by her draught?

(a) She could easily go aground and tear the bottom out of her hull, causing a major ecological disaster, killing all seabirds, covering the coastline with oil, pollution at its worst.

A power-driven vessel gives way to……A fishing vessel gives way to…….
3 Big
2 small
1 awkward
Restricted in her ability to manoeuvre

Not under command

Constrained by her draught
Sailing

Fishing
A power-driven vessel on your own starboard side

3 Big
1 awkward
Restricted in her ability to manoeuvre

Not under command

Constrained by her draught
A fishing vessel on your own starboard side

Rule 19. Conduct of vessels in Restricted Visibility.

(Q) What does Rule 19 mean to you?

(a) This Rule applies to all vessels in or near an area of Restricted Visibility.
IN OTHER WORDS: – (THERE ARE NO STAND_ON VESSELS IN RESTRICTED VISIBILITY)

(Q) What would you say a safe speed was in Restricted visibility?

(a) A speed that you could stop your vessel in half the visible distance you could see, so you could alter using Rule 19 (d) parts (i) and (ii)

(Q) What does part (a) say?

(a) This Rule Applies to all vessels in or near an area of restricted visibility

(Q) What does part (b) say?

(a) Go at a safe speed and have your engines ready for immediate manoeuvre’s

(Q) What does part (c) say?

(a) Have Due regards to the prevailing condition

(Q) What does Rule 19 (d) say?

(a) A vessel which detects by radar alone the presence of another vessel shall determine if a close-quarter situation is developing and/or risk of collision exists. if so she shall take avoiding action in ample time, providing that when such action consists of an alteration of course, so far as possible the following shall be avoided

(Q) What does Rule 19 (d) Part (i) say?

(a) Avoid an alteration to port for a vessel forward of the beam, other than for a vessel being overtaken

(Q) What does Rule 19 (d) Part (ii) say?

(a) Avoid an alteration towards a vessel abeam or abaft the beam

(Q) What does Rule 19 (e) say?

(a) Except where it has been determined that a risk of collision does not exist, every vessel which hears apparently forward of her beam, the fog signal of another vessel, or which cannot avoid a close-quarters situation with another vessel forward of her beam, shall reduce her speed to a minimum at which she can be kept on her course. Shall if necessary take all her way off and in any event navigate with extreme caution until danger of collision is over.

Rule 23. Power-Driven Vessels

(Q) A Power-driven Vessel – UNDERWAY, what Navigation Lights does he switch off if he is stopped and making no-way through the water?

(a) None, he is not entitled to switch off any Navigation Lights

(Q) What is classed as Navigation Lights?

(a) Sidelights (Port & Starboard), Sternlight, and if entitled to them Masthead light(s)

(Q) What vessels are not entitled to masthead lights if the vessel is Underway?

(a) Three vessels;

  1. Fishing vessel other than Trawling (Red Light over a White Light – 2 metres apart)
  2. Not Under Command (Red light over a Red Light – 2 metres apart)
  3. A Vessel engaged in Pilotage duties (White light over a Red Light – 2 metres apart)
(Q) How can you tell a Power-driven vessel is Makingway?

(a) By taking a series of Compass, Radar & Visual Bearings (visual Bearings being most accurate)

Rule 34. Manoeuvring and Warning Signals

(Q) 1,2,3 & 5 Short and Rapid blasts on the ships whistle, what condition of visibility are these sound signals used?

(a) When vessels are in sight of one another

(Q) Does that mean clear visibility?

(a) No, you can still see a vessel when it is hazy, when you can see the vessel visually then you use this Rule and not Rule 35. Sound Signals in Restricted Visibility

(Q) In a Narrow Channel, a vessel sounds 2 Prolonged Blasts followed by 1 short blast (Morse “G” – Golf), what does he intend to do?

(a) He wants to Overtake your Starboard side and he is awaiting your answer for you to agree for him to pass

(Q) In a Narrow Channel, a vessel sounds 2 Prolonged Blasts followed by 2 short blast (Morse “Z” – Zulu), what does he intend to do?

(a) He wants to Overtake your Port side and he is awaiting your answer for you to agree for him to pass

(Q) What sound signal would you reply with if you agreed with the overtaking manoeuvre?

(a) (Morse “C” – Charlie) 1 Prolonged blast followed by 1 short blast followed by 1 prolonged blast followed by 1 short blast on the ships whistle

(Q) What would you sound if you disagreed to be overtaken in a narrow channel?

(a) You’d sound 5 or more short and rapid blasts on the ships whistle, you can also flash a light 5 or more times

(Q) In a Narrow channel, your coming towards a bend in the channel, what warning signal will you sound?

(a) One prolonged blast on the ships whistle

(Q) If I was coming around the bend towards you, what warning signal would I sound?

(a) One prolonged blast on the ships whistle

(Q) You’re on a collison course with another vessel, you’re the stand-on vessel, the giveway vessel is standing-on, what warning signal will you sound?

(a) You’ll sound 5 or more short and rapid blasts on the ships whistle

Rule 35. Sound signals in Restricted Visibility

(Q) A vessel engaged in Pilotage duties, what is his identity signal?

(a) He may sound 4 short and rapid blasts on the ships whistle

(Q) May he sound the identity signal when vessels are in sight of one another?

(a) No, this is only to be sounded in Restricted Visibility

(Q) Is there a time length for the Pilots identity signal (I.E. not exceeding 2 minutes)?

(a) No, there is no time limit, he may sound the identity signal as and when he wants

(Q) Name the vessels with a hampered fog signal (1 Prolonged and 2 short)?

(i) Sailing Vessel
(ii) Fishing vessels (Trawler & Fishing other than Trawling)
(iii) Not Under command
(iv) Restricted in her ability to manoeuvre
(v) Constrained by her Draught
(vi) Minesweeper
(vii) Vessel engaged in towing
(viii) Restricted in her ability to manoeuvre engaged in towing
(ix) A vessel engaged in pushing another vessel ahead
(x) A Fishing vessel other than trawling fishing while at anchor (Anchor Seine-net)
(xi) Restricted in her ability to manoeuvre while at anchor

(Q) A Power-driven vessel has 2 different Fog signals, what are they?

(a)  If Underway – Two Prolonged blasts on the ships whistle at intervals not exceeding two minutes
If Makingway – One Prolonged blast on the ships whistle at intervals not exceeding two minutes

(Q) A Short Blast – How long does it last for?

(a) One second

(Q) A Prolonged Blast – How long does it last for?

(a) Between 4 – 6 Seconds

(Q) What is the complete sound signal for a vessel engaged in towing another vessel that is manned?

(a) The towing vessel will sound 1 prolonged blast followed by 2 short blasts on the ships whistle, the vessel being towed will immediately sound 1 prolonged blast followed by 3 short blasts on the ships whistle, all within 2 minutes

(Q) A vessel at anchor (under 100 metres), what is his fog signal?

(a)A rapid ringing on the bell (forward) for 5 seconds at intervals not exceeding 1 minute

(Q) A vessel at anchor (Over 100 metres), what is his fog signal?

(a) A rapid ringing on the bell for 5 (forward) seconds, then A rapid ringing on the gong (aft) for 5 seconds at intervals not exceeding 1 minute

(Q) A vessel at anchor has a warning signal he may use to alert you of a possible collision, what is it?

(a) He may sound (Morse “R” – Romeo) 1 short blast followed by 1 prolonged blast followed by 1 short blast

(Q) A vessel aground (Under 100 metres), what is his fog signal?

(a) 3 distinct strokes on the bell, followed by a rapid ringing on the bell for 5 seconds, followed by 3 distinct strokes on the bell (bell is forward in the ship) at intervals not exceeding 1 minute

(Q) A vessel aground (Over 100 metres), what is his fog signal?

(a) 3 distinct strokes on the bell, followed by a rapid ringing on the bell for 5 seconds, followed by 3 distinct strokes on the bell followed by (bell is forward in the ship) a rapid ringing on the gong (gong is aft in the ship) for 5 seconds at intervals not exceeding 1 minute

About the author

Vikrant_sharma

7 Comments

    • Hi Vijesh, the definition of Underway is mentioned very clearly in ROR which says the vessel is underway when she is not at anchor, made fast ashore or aground which clearly means a vessel drifted by current is also underway whereas to be called making way in simple words, as long as the thrust is being generated by the propeller, its making way. In this Case the engine may have been stopped but the propeller may still be rotating. In making way, the wake produced by the propeller can be seen on the surface of the sea.
      In case you have doubts & queries, please drop your question on home page (the option for dropping your question is provided)

    • Underway : Should Not be secured by any means with land
      Making way : Making Headway ( Using propullsion ) or you moving a head by Current/wind with standing

      • @prasanna: Making Way & making headway has little difference. In making way, it does not matter in which direction the ship is heading as long as the movement is because of the propeller thrust. making headway simply means the ship is moving ahead because of the propeller thrust & underway as you rightly said the vessel is not secured with ground, hence it can be drifted by current. To sum up,if a vessel is making way that means for sure it is underway. but if she is underway, its not necessary that she is making way.

    • Making way refers to the vessel is in movement in water. Under way also refers to any time when the vessel is in water, no matter whether the vessel is in movement or stationary in water. It just needs to satisfy the condition ‘not anchored’. It is possible for a vessel to be under way, but not making way.

Leave a Comment