What is precaution, stowage and hazards associated with Direct Reduced Iron or DRI?

Direct reduced iron (A) is a metallic grey material, moulded in a briquette form, emanating from a densification process whereby the direct reduced iron (DRI) feed material is moulded at a temperature greater than 650°C and has a density greater than 5,000 kg/m3 . Fines and small particles (under 6.35 mm) shall not exceed 5% by weight.

  • Prior to loading, the terminal shall ensure that the conveyor belts used for loading this cargo contain no accumulation of water or other substances.
  • Each time cargo operations are commenced or restarted, particularly after rain or washing down, any loading belt shall be operated empty and not over a ship’s cargo space.
  • Prior to loading, an ultrasonic test or another equivalent method with a suitable instrument shall be conducted to ensure weather tightness of the hatch covers and closing arrangements and all readings shall confirm weather tightness.
  • Prior to loading this cargo, the shipper shall provide the master with a certificate issued by a competent person recognized by the National Surveyor General of the port of loading stating that the cargo, at the time of loading, is suitable for shipment, and that it conforms with the requirements of this Code; that the quantity of fines and small particles is no more than 5% by weight; that the moisture content is less than 0.3%; and that the temperature does not exceed 65°C.
  • This certificate shall state the date of manufacture for each lot of cargo to be loaded in order to meet the loading criteria in regards to ageing and material temperature.
  • The cargo shall not be accepted for loading when its temperature is in excess of 65°C or if its moisture content is in excess of 0.3% or if the quantity of fines and small particles exceeds 5% by weight.
  • Any cargo that has been wetted, or is known to have been wetted, shall not be loaded into any cargo space.
  • Prior to loading, provision shall be made to introduce a dry, inert gas at tank top level so that the inert gas purges the air from the cargo and fills the free volume above. Nitrogen is preferred for this purpose.
  • All vents, accesses and other openings such as coaming drains that could allow the inert atmosphere to be lost from cargo spaces carrying this cargo shall be closed and sealed.
  • The cargo shall be loaded in such a way as to minimize both the breakage of the cold moulded briquettes, pellets, lumps and the additional generation of fines and the concentrating of fines in any area of the cargo. This cargo shall be homogenous with no added waste.
  • The addition of DRI particles, fines or dust in this cargo shall be prohibited.
  • Due consideration shall be given to evenly spreading the cargo across the tank top to minimize the concentration of fines. Trim in accordance with the relevant provisions required under sections 4 and 5 of the Code.
  • The cargo temperature and moisture shall be monitored during loading and recorded in a log detailing the temperature and moisture for each lot of cargo loaded, a copy of which shall be provided to the master.
  • After loading, a certificate shall be issued by a competent person recognized by the National Surveyor General of the port of loading confirming that throughout the whole consignment fines and small particles (under 6.35 mm size) are less than 5% by weight, that the moisture content has not exceeded 0.3% and the temperature does not exceed 65°C.
  • On completion of loading of a cargo space, it shall be immediately closed and sealed. Sufficient inert gas shall then be introduced to achieve an oxygen concentration less than 5% throughout the cargo space.
Precaution while loading and carriage –
  • The cargo spaces shall be clean, dry and free from salt and residues of previous cargoes.
  • Prior to loading, wooden fixtures such as battens, loose dunnage, debris and combustible materials shall be removed.
  • The cargo shall be kept dry at all times during storage, before and during loading, and during transportation.
  • The cargo shall not be loaded onto ships, or transferred between ships or barges, during precipitation.
  • During loading of this cargo, all non-working hatches of cargo spaces into which this cargo is loaded, or is to be loaded, shall be kept closed.
  • During any handling of this cargo “NO SMOKING” signs shall be posted on decks and in areas adjacent to cargo spaces, and no naked lights shall be permitted in these areas.
  • Smoking, burning, cutting, chipping, grinding or other sources of ignition shall not be allowed in the vicinity of cargo spaces containing this cargo at any time.
  • Cargo spaces containing this cargo and adjacent spaces may become oxygen-depleted.
  • Flammable gas may also build up in these spaces. All precautions shall be taken when entering the cargo spaces.
Following hazards associated with DRI-
  • Temporary increase in temperature of about 30°C due to self-heating may be expected after material handling in bulk.
  • The material may slowly evolve hydrogen after contact with water (notably saline water).
  • Hydrogen is a flammable gas that can form an explosive mixture when mixed with air in concentration above 4% by volume.
  • It is liable to cause oxygen depletion in cargo spaces.
  • This cargo is non-combustible or has a low fire-risk.


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