1. Types of refrigerated cargo:
- Food products comprise the majority of refrigerated cargo, although other commodities such as medicines, drugs, and certain temperature-sensitive chemicals are often transported in this manner.
- Items shipped under refrigeration cannot withstand long periods of exposure to normal outside air temperature or other conditions that might result in deterioration and ultimate loss of a commodity.
- This applies whether the cargo is loaded in containers or is transported by conventional break-bulk stowage in the ship’s refrigerated cargo spaces.
- Containerization is a very effective method of transporting refrigerated cargo. Continuous refrigeration between point of origin and destination and the elimination of multiple handling required in conventional break-bulk shipments have drastically reduced in-transit damage and loss of these products.
- The advantages of one handling at point of loading and point of discharge are especially apparent when compared to the conventional cargo system with its multiple handlings-
- from warehouse to rail,
- to truck,
- through the terminal and aboard ship,
- discharge at port as destination, and
- reloading again to truck or rail for final delivery.
- Stowing refrigerated cargo does not differ greatly from that of general cargo, except that refrigerated cargo requires more care with temperature and ventilation and normally is not palletized.
- Foods having a strong odour should not be mixed with those having a tendency to absorb odours.
- All cargo compartments must be at the prescribed temperature before loading to prevent refrigerated cargo from thawing or spoiling.
- Perishable cargo is divided into three general classes: frozen, chilled, and air-cooled cargo.