Unloading work on PCCs
Though basically corresponding to loading, attention should be paid to the following points to prevent damage to vehicles.Unloading should be carried out according to the stowing method (clockwise, counterclockwise or head-out method. since the stowing method is selected so as to best fit the stowing place and the type of ship, unloading according to this method is effective in preventing damage and maintaining efficiency in cargo handling.)
Unloading should be conducted with caution according to the order of lead car indication cards until there is sufficient space for turning.The door should be opened/closed with caution by supporting it by hand.Accidents such as collision due to slipping and damage to the front, rear, underside or roof tend to occur when going down the ramp because of excessive speed. Therefore, driving down requires caution.
Cargo handling on elevator ships
Though basically corresponding to cargo handling on PCCs, work on elevator ships involves the following steps.
To ensure safety in cargo handling, work should be clearly divided into the following categories: roll-on operation (driving the vehicle from the quay wall to the elevator), elevator operation and stowing operation (driving the vehicle out of the elevator for stowing).
The elevator operator should become familiar with the elevator operation method by contacting the ship’s crew in advance and, at the same time, check the head clearance of the elevator door and the inside dimensions of the elevator and the load capacity.
Driving in and driving out of the elevator should be conducted by following the directions given by the traffic guide.
The hand brake should be completely pulled back and the foot brake should be used inside the elevator car.
Cargo handling on RO/RO ship
Though basically corresponding to cargo handling on PCCs, attention should be paid to the following points.
Slings suitable for vehicles to be loaded should be used with an anti-rolling rope secured to each corner.
When lifting the vehicle, the driver should stop the engine and pull back the hand brake completely before getting off the vehicle.
More than 50cm of space should be left around the key car. When loading the key car, special attention is paid so that it will not be in slings or workers.
The winch or crane operator should operate by following the directions given by the deck hand. He should not lower the vehicle on the deck in a rough manner such as swinging.
The method of, the material for and the number of lashing are determined by the sailing route, the season, the type of ship, the place of stowage, lashing points, the weight of vehicle, etc. Since lashing is conducted in a restricted place where lighting is blocked by vehicles, sufficient attention should be paid so as not to cause damage to vehicles.
Types of lashing materials
- Belt type
Load capacity: 400kg Shearing strength: 1,600kg
- Wire ratchet type
Load capacity: 400kg
Shearing strength: 1,600 kg
- Rope and stick method (Spanish windlass method)
Shearing strength: 1,900kg
- Hand rope tightening method (often used on north European ships)
Shearing strength: 2,200kg
- Chain and turnbuckle method
Load capacity: 1—5 tons
Shearing strength: 4—20 tons
Though the method varies according to different conditions, lashing methods for vehicles of under 1 ton in weight are as outlined below.
- Fore and aft stowing
Front: 2 points
Rear: 2 points
Total 4 points
- Athwart stowing
Front: 3—4 points
Rear: 3—4 points
Total 6—8 points
- Ramp stowing
Top: 3—4 points
Underside: 2 points
Installation of wheel blocks
- The desirable lashing angle is 45o and the belt should not twist.
Lashing should be adequately tight with 4—8 points of lashing evenly fastened.(with adequately tightened lashing belts, the vehicle is normally pressed down by 20—30 mm.)
While cross lashing should be avoided as much as possible, if it is unavoidable because of lashing points, it should be adopted by making sure that lashing materials are not in contact with each other.
After completing lashing, the tension of the rope or belt should be checked by stepping on it.
One member of each gang should be assigned to inspect whether lashing has been forgotten, whether lashing has been inadequately tightened, whether positions are suitable, etc.
Workers should not put their hands on the vehicle, lean against it, sit or stand on the bumper, etc. (prevention of dents and scratches)
When transporting materials, make sure that they do not touch vehicles.
Headlights should not be used for lashing work.
Tools covered with rudder, etc., should be used for lashing work so that vehicles will not be damaged.
Basically corresponding to lasing work. However unloading is carried out at a higher pace, and if lashing materials, which have been taken off, are left in the passage, they cause accidents involving workers and vehicles. Make sure that they have been taken off completely and correctly.
Though corresponding to above: Loading supervision, unloading supervision should be made by paying attention to the following points:
- *Make sure that those vehicles bound for other ports will not be unlashed.
- *Make sure that the wrong cargo will not be unloaded and that there will be no leftover.
- *Vehicles tend to get damaged, e.g., dents, scratches, and more often during unlashing and unloading while moving around in the hold packed with stowed vehicles. Make sure to prevent such damage