What are carriage requirements of Shipborne navigational equipment as per SOLAS?

Under SOLAS Chapter V, Regulation 12 (Shipborne Navigational Equipment), all ships are required to carry a minimum of navigational equipment, depending on their size – the larger the ship, the more equipment it should have.

2.1

All ships irrespective of size shall have:
 
2.1.1a properly adjusted standard magnetic compass or other means, independent of any power supply to determine the ship’s heading and display the reading at the main steering position;
2.1.2a pelorus or compass bearing device, or other means, independent of any power supply to take bearings over an arc of the horizon of 360°;
2.1.3means of correcting heading and bearings to true at all times;
2.1.4nautical charts and nautical publications to plan and display the ship’s route for the intended voyage and to plot and monitor positions throughout the voyage; an electronic chart display and information system (ECDIS) may be accepted as meeting the chart carriage requirements of this subparagraph;
2.1.5back-up arrangements to meet the functional requirements of subparagraph .4, if this function is partly or fully fulfilled by electronic means;*
* An appropriate folio of paper nautical charts may be used as a back-up arrangement for ECDIS. Other back-up arrangements for ECDIS are acceptable (see appendix 6 to resolution A.817(19), as amended).
2.1.6a receiver for a global navigation satellite system or a terrestrial radio navigation system, or other means, suitable for use at all times throughout the intended voyage to establish and update the ship’s position by automatic means;
2.1.7if less than 150 gross tonnage and if practicable, a radar reflector or other means, to enable detection by ships navigating by Radar at both 9 and 3 GHz;
2.1.8when the ship’s bridge is totally enclosed and unless the Administration determines otherwise, a sound reception system, or other means, to enable the officer in charge of the navigational watch to hear sound signals and determine their direction;
2.1.9a telephone, or other means, to communicate heading information to the emergency steering position, if provided.
  
2.2All ships of 150 gross tonnage and upwards and passenger ships irrespective of size shall, in addition to the requirements of paragraph 2.1, be fitted with:
 
2.2.1a spare magnetic compass interchangeable with the magnetic compass, as referred to in paragraph

2.1.1, or other means to perform the function referred to in paragraph 2.1.1 by means of replacement or duplicate equipment;

2.2.2a daylight signalling lamp, or other means to communicate by light during day and night using an energy source of electrical power not solely dependent upon the ship’s power supply.
  
2.3All ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards and passenger ships irrespective of size shall, in addition to meeting the requirements of paragraph 2.2, be fitted with:
 
2.3.1an echo sounding device, or other electronic means, to measure and display the available depth of water;
2.3.2a 9 GHz radar, or other means to determine and display the range and bearing of radar transponders and of other surface craft, obstructions, buoys, shorelines and navigational marks to assist in navigation and in collision avoidance;
2.3.3an electronic plotting aid, or other means, to plot electronically the range and bearing of targets to determine collision risk;
2.3.4speed and distance measuring device, or other means, to indicate speed and distance through the water;
2.3.5a properly adjusted transmitting heading device, or other means to transmit heading information for input to the equipment referred to in paragraphs 2.3.2, 2.3.3 and 2.4.
  
2.4All ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards engaged on international voyages and cargo ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards not engaged on international voyages and passenger ships irrespective of size shall be fitted with an automatic identification system (AIS), as follows:
 
2.4.1ships constructed on or after 1 July 2002;
2.4.2ships engaged on international voyages constructed before 1 July 2002:
 
2.4.2.1in the case of passenger ships, not later than 1 July 2003;
2.4.2.2in the case of tankers, not later than the first survey for safety equipment* on or after 1 July 2003;
2.4.2.3in the case of ships, other than passenger ships and tankers, of 50,000 gross tonnage and upwards, not later than 1 July 2004;
2.4.2.4in the case of ships, other than passenger ships and tankers, of 300 gross tonnage and upwards but less than 50,000 gross tonnage, not later than the first safety equipment survey* after 1 July 2004 or by 31 December 2004, whichever occurs earlier: and;
2.4.3ships not engaged on international voyages constructed before 1 July 2002, not later than 1 July 2008;
2.4.4the Administration may exempt ships from the application of the requirements of this paragraph when such ships will be taken permanently out of service within two years after the implementation date specified in subparagraphs .2 and .3;
2.4.5AIS shall:
 
2.4.5.1provide automatically to appropriately equipped shore stations, other ships and aircraft information, including the ship’s identity, type, position, course, speed, navigational status and other safety-related information; Refer to regulation I/8.
2.4.5.2receive automatically such information from similarly fitted ships;
2.4.5.3monitor and track ships; and
2.4.5.4exchange data with shore-based facilities;
2.4.6the requirements of paragraph 2.4.5 shall not be applied to cases where international agreements, rules or standards provide for the protection of navigational information; and
2.4.7AIS shall be operated taking into account the guidelines adopted by the Organization. Ships fitted with AIS shall maintain AIS in operation at all times except where international agreements, rules or standards provide for the protection of navigational information.
  
2.5All ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards shall, in addition to meeting the requirements of paragraph 2.3 with the exception of paragraphs 2.3.3 and 2.3.5, and the requirements of paragraph 2.4, have:
 
2.5.1a gyro compass, or other means, to determine and display their heading by shipborne non-magnetic means, being clearly readable by the helmsman at the main steering position. These means shall also transmit heading information for input to the equipment referred in paragraphs 2.3.2, 2.4 and 2.5.5;;
2.5.2a gyro compass heading repeater, or other means, to supply heading information visually at the emergency steering position if provided;
2.5.3a gyro compass bearing repeater, or other means, to take bearings, over an arc of the horizon of 360º, using the gyro compass or other means referred to in subparagraph .1. However ships less than 1,600 gross tonnage shall be fitted with such means as far as possible;
2.5.4rudder, propeller, thrust, pitch and operational mode indicators, or other means to determine and display rudder angle, propeller revolutions, the force and direction of thrust and, if applicable, the force and direction of lateral thrust and the pitch and operational mode, all to be readable from the conning position; and
2.5.5an automatic tracking aid, or other means, to plot automatically the range and bearing of other targets to determine collision risk.
  
2.6On all ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards, failure of one piece of equipment should not reduce the ship’s ability to meet the requirements of paragraphs 2.1.1, 2.1.2 and 2.1.4.
  
2.7All ships of 3000 gross tonnage and upwards shall, in addition to meeting the requirements of paragraph 2.5, have:
 
2.7.1a 3 GHz radar or where considered appropriate by the Administration a second 9 GHz radar, or other means to determine and display the range and bearing of other surface craft, obstructions, buoys, shorelines and navigational marks to assist in navigation and in collision avoidance, which are functionally independent of those referred to in paragraph 2.3.2; and
2.7.2a second automatic tracking aid, or other means to plot automatically the range and bearing of other targets to determine collision risk which are functionally independent of those referred to in paragraph 2.5.5.
  
2.8All ships of 10,000 gross tonnage and upwards shall, in addition to meeting the requirements of paragraph 2.7 with the exception of paragraph 2.7.2, have:
 
2.8.1an automatic radar plotting aid, or other means, to plot automatically the range and bearing of at least 20 other targets, connected to a device to indicate speed and distance through the water, to determine collision risks and simulate a trial manoeuvre; and
2.8.2a heading or track control system, or other means, to automatically control and keep to a heading and/or straight track.
  
2.9All ships of 50,000 gross tonnage and upwards shall, in addition to meeting the requirements of paragraph 2.8, have:
 
2.9.1a rate of turn indicator, or other means, to determine and display the rate of turn; and
2.9.2a speed and distance measuring device, or other means, to indicate speed and distance over the ground in the forward and athwartships direction.
3.When “other means” are permitted under this regulation, such means must be approved by Administration in accordance with regulation 18.
4.The navigational equipment and systems referred to in this regulation shall be so installed, tested and maintained as to minimize malfunction.
5.Navigational equipment and systems offering alternative modes of operation shall indicate the actual mode of use.
6.Integrated bridge systems* shall be so arranged that failure of one sub-system is brought to immediate attention of the officer in charge of the navigational watch by audible and visual alarms, and does not cause failure to any other sub-system. In case of failure in one part of an integrated navigational system,** it shall be possible to operate each other individual item of equipment or part of the system separately.

* Refer to resolution MSC.64(67), annex 1 – Performance standard for Integrated bridge systems.
** Refer to resolution MSC.86(70), annex 3 – Performance standard for Integrated navigational systems.

Table for requirements of Navigational equipements

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Amit Sharma

Graduated from M.E.R.I. Mumbai (Mumbai University), After a brief sailing founded this website with the idea to bring the maritime education online which must be free and available for all at all times and to find basic solutions that are of extreme importance to a seafarer by our innovative ideas.