*Brake Power calculation with torsion meter if mechanical efficiency not given:*

*Brake Power calculation with torsion meter if mechanical efficiency not given:*

*If the torque transmitted by a shaft is known, together with the angular velocity, then the power can be measured, i.e. *

*Shaft power = torque x angular velocity*

*Shaft power = torque x angular velocity*

*The torque on a shaft can be found by measuring the shear stress or angle of twist with a torsion meter.*

*But, in situations where mechanical efficiency is given, brake power can be calculated as follows:*

*i) Calculate indicated power with the help of indicator diagram*

*ii) Crake power= Indicated power X Mechanical efficiency*

__Calculation of indicated power __

__Calculation of indicated power__*Compression ratio is defined as the ratio obtained by dividing volume at BDC by volume at TDC (clearance volume).*

*Compression ratio is defined as the ratio obtained by dividing volume at BDC by volume at TDC (clearance volume).*

Compression ratio= (Swept volume + Clearance volume) ÷ Clearance volume

*Significance of Compression Ratio-*

*Significance of Compression Ratio-*

*Affect fuel economy:*

*Affect fuel economy:*

*The higher the ratio, the more compressed the air in the cylinder is. When the air is compressed, you get a more powerful explosion from the air-fuel mixture, and more of the fuel gets used.*

*Affect gas emission:*

*Affect gas emission:*

**High compression ratios provide better burning of fuel and this reduce the waste gases produced by the engine , anything higher than 16:1 will be problem and create something called a knock.**

**Affect engine cold starting characteristics:**

**Affect engine cold starting characteristics:**

**Engines with high compression ratios produce excessive heat compared to lower compressed vehicles thus doing a cold start should not be a problem for these type of vehicles.**

**Affect performance:**

**Affect performance:**

**Higher compression ratios provide much more power than lower ratios. This also allows engine to be more efficient at higher rpms. Lower compression ratios give lower output but are more easy to build, maintain and generally have better life.**

**Higher compression ratio advantages:**

**Higher compression ratio advantages:**

**Much better performance****Higher relative fuel economy****Higher usable power throughout****Better emissions.**

**Lower compression ratio advantage:**

**Lower compression ratio advantage:**

**Cheaper to build, run and repair.****Lasts much longer****Can be air cooled.****Less noise and vibration.****Can be run on relatively lower quality fuel.****Do not generate as much heat**